Original Photographs of Bhagat Singh
Family’s Photographs
Photo gallary of Bhagat Singh and Compatriots and their families
Few quotes from jail note book of Shaheed Bhagat Singh
Letters, Writting & Statements
S. Ajit Singh’s Autobiography
Bhagat Singh - an Intimate view by Com. Ajay Ghosh
Notes taken in Jail by Bhagat Singh
Books Read by Bhagat Singh ( NEW)
First Biography Published in May 1931
Bhagat Singh Transcendence to Revolutionism
Bhagat Singh a Revisit to help understand
Important Document written by Revolutionary Bhagat Singh


Jail Note Book of Shahid Bhagat Singh

Page 1

{ This note book was received on 12 Sep 1929 when the agreement was made between the hunger strikers and Special Jail committee. This is first  page of the Note Book --  editor }


For Bhagat Singh

Four hundred & four pages

[ 404 Pages]

Sd/- {jail Superintendent}





Sgnature of Bhagat Singh {two}

Initials {two}

Page 2   { Blank}

page 3

"Lover ,lunatic and poet are mad of the same stuff"


Inductive = from particular to general

Deductive = frpm general to pticular

Centrifugal = tending from the centre

Centripital = tending to the centre


" My  strength is the strength of

oppressed , my courage is the courage of desperation "




Kureh Khak hai Gardash main Tapash sai Meri ,

Main Voh majnu huan Jo Jindan main Bhee Azad Raha


{ Every tiny molecule of Ash is in motion with my heat

I am such a Lunatic that I am free even in Jail }


" Money is the honey of mankind "



Page 4

Currency rates of various Countries :-

Rouble (Russian Coin) [Silver ] = 100copeks=2sh 1- 1/2d

Crown silver = 5shilling

1Lira (Italian) = 1france [Divided into 100 centesian)=9 1/2d

Mark [English coin now quite out of use was worth 13sh.4 d]

Mark [German coin existing and in use } =1sh 4d

Drachma = Greek Coin



Agnosticism = the idea that we can know nothing of God


Agnosticism might be tolerated , but materialism

is utterly inadmissible ; ( in England)"   " Engels"


page 5

Land measurements :-

German 20 Hectares = 50 acers i.e 1 hectare= 2 1/2 acres

page 6

Freedom from Property

The "freedom from property" ...............as far as the Small capitalist and peasant’s properties are concerned become "freedom from property."

Marraige itself remained as before , the legally recognized form , the official cloak of prostitution...............

[ Sism Scientific and Utopian] *

Mental Bondage

" An eternal being created human society as it is today and submission to ‘superiors’ and ‘authority’ is imposed on ‘lower’ classes by divine will ." this suggestion , come from pulpit , platform and press, has hypnotised the minds of men and proves to be one of the strongist pillars of exploitation ."

            { Translator’s preface to Origin of The Family } **

* Socialism , Utopian and Scientific by Federick Engels


** The Origin of the Family ,Private Property and the State by Federick Engels


page 7

The origin of The Family by Engels

Morgan was the first to make an attempt at

introducing a logical order into the history of

primeval society.

He divided it into three main epoches

1. Savagery 2. Barbarism 3. Civilization

1. Savagery redivided into three stages

1. Lower 2. middle 3. Higher

1. Lower Stage of savagery :-

Infancy of human race ". Living in

Tribes ( 2 ) Fruits ,nuts and roots serving as food

(3) the formation of articulated speech is the principal result of that period

2. Middle stage :-

venison.=animal flesh taken 1. Fire discovered 2. fish being used (as) food

by hunting (3) Hunting stone implements invented

(4) caninbbism comes into existance

3. Higher stage :-

1. Bow and arrow no pottery 2. village settlement

(3)Timber used for Gevil Ineg

4. Cloth weaver

Bows and arrows were for the stage of Savagery what the vision

Sword was for barbarism and the firearm for civilization

the weapon of supermcy.

Page 8


1. Lower Stage :-1. Introduction of pottery. At first wooden pots were

covered with layers of earth , but afterwards earthen pots were discovered 2. Human races divided into two distinct classes 1. eastern who taimed animals and had grain 2. western who hd only ‘corn’

2. Middle Stage :-

(a) Western hemisphere i.e in America they grew food plants

(Cultivation and irrigation and baked bricks for house building

(b) Eastern They domesticated animals ; for milk and flesh . No cultivation in this stage yet.

3. Higher Stage :-

1. melting of iron ore

2. Invention of letter script and its utilization for writing records.

This stage is richer in inventions. This is the period of greek heroes.

3. iron ploughshare drawn by animals to grow orn on larger scale.

4. Clearing forests; and iron axe and iron spade used.

5. Great attainments :- (1) Improved iron tools (2) the bellows (3)hand mill (4) potter’s wheel (5) Prepration of oil and wine (6)fashioning metals (7) wagons and chariots (8) ship building

Page 9

9. Artistic Architecture (10) Towns and fort built

11. Homeric Epochs and Entire mythology.

with these attainments Greeks enter the third stage of ‘Civilization’;

To Sum up

1. Savagery - time of predominating appropration of finished natural products;

human ingenuity invents mainly tools useful in assisting this appropriation .

2. Barbarism :- Time of acquiring knowledge of cattle raising ,of agriculture and new methods for increasing the productivity of nature by human agency.

3. Civilization :- Time of learning a wider utilization of natural products , of manufacturing and art.


_______________ : 0 : _____________

We have ,then ,three main forms of the family corresponding in general to three main stages of human development .

1. For savagery ; "group marriage

2. For Barbarism the pairing family

3. For Civilization , monogamy , supplemented by adultry and prosititution. Between the pairing family and monogamy , in the higher stage of barbarism , the rule of man over female slaves and polygamy is inserted.

PP 90

page 10

Defects of marriage

Especially a long engagement is in nine cases out of ten a perfect training school of adultry

PP 91

Socialistic Revolution and Marraige Institution

We are now approaching a social revolution , in whcih the old ecoomic foundations of monogamy will disappear first as surely those of its compliment prostitution. Monogamy arose through the concentration of considerable wealth in one hand-a man’s hand -and from the endeavour to bequeath this wealth to the childrens of the man to the exclusion of all others. This necessiated monogamy on the women , but not on the man’s part. Hence monogamy of women is no way hindered open or secret polygamy of men.

Now the impending social revolution will reduce this whole case of inheritance to a minimum by changing at least the over whelming part of permanent and inheritable wealth --- the means of production -- into social property . Since monogamy was caused by economic conditions , will it appear when these causes are abolished ?



page 11

" Ah my beloved ,fill the cup that clears

Today of past , Regrets and future fears--

Tomorrow ? --- Why ,Tommorrow I may be

Myself with Yesterday’s sins Thousand Years.

------------------------- : 0 ; -------------------

Here with a loaf of bread beneath the Bough,

A Flask of Wine , a book of verse -- and Thou

Besides me singing in the Wilderness --

And wilderness is paradise now

" Umar Khayyam"

--------------------------- : 0 :-----------------------

State ;- The state presupposes a public power of coersion separted from the

aggregate body of its members . (Engels ) Pp116

Origin of State :- ........... Degeneration of the old feuds between tribes regular mode of existing by systematic plundering on land and sea for the purpose of acquring castles , slaves and treasures. In short wealth is praised and respected as the highest treasure , and the old gentile institutions are abused in order to justify the forcible robbery of wealth.

Only one thing was missing; an institution that not only secured the newely acquired property of private individuals against the communistic traditions of the gens that not only declared as sacred the formerly so despised private property and represented the protection of this sacred property as the highest purpose of human society; but that also stamped the gradually developing new forms of acquiring property of constantly increasing wealth with the universal sanction of the Society. An institution

pp ....

[Page 12Origin of State ] that lent the character of perpetuity not only to the newly rising division into classes but also to the right of possesing classes to exploit and rule the non-posessing classes .

And this institution was found . The State arose.

pp 129-130


Definition of a Good Government

" Good goverment can never be a substitute for self government. "

" Henery Campbell Bannerman"

" We are convinced that there is only one form of Goverment , whatever it may be called, namely , where the ultimate control is in the hands of the people."

" Earl of Balfour"


" My own view of religion is that of Lucretius. I regard it a disease born of fear , and as source of untold nuisancy to the human race.I cannot however deny that it has made some contribution to civilization. It helped in early days to fix the calander and it caused the Egyptian priest to chronicle eclipses with such care that in time they become able to predict them. These two services I am prepared to acknowledge, but I donot know any other."

Bernard Russell

Page 13

Benevolent Despotism :-

Montague Chelmford called the British Government a ‘benevolent despotism ‘ and according to Ramsay Macdonald ,the Imperialist leader of British Labor Party , in all attempts to govern a country by a ‘benevolent despotism’ the goverments are crushed down. They become subjects who obey, not citizens who act.There literature , their act , their spiritual expression go"

-----------------------------: 0 :-------------------------------------------------

Gov’t of India

Rt. Hon’ble Edwin S. Montague Secretary of State for India , said in the house of commons in 1907 :---

" The Goverment of India is too wooden , too iron ,too inelastic ,too antidiluvian to be of any use for modern purpose. The Indian Government is indefensible."

British Rule in India :-

Dr. Ruthford’s Words :-

"British Rule as it is carried on in India is the lowest and most immoral system of government in the world--- the exploitation of one nation by another ."

Liberty and English Life .

The English people love liberty for themselves .They hate all acts of injustice , except those which they themselves commit. They are such liberty - loving people that they interfere in the Congo and cry ‘Shame’ to the Belgiam .But they forget their heals are on the neck of India.

An Irsih author

Page 14

Mob Retaliation

.... Let us therefore examine how men came by the idea of punishment in this manner.

They learn it from the Governments they live under , and retaliate the punishment they have been accustomed to behold. The heads struck upon spikes, which remained for years upon Temple Bar, differed nothing in the horror of the scene from those carried about upon spikes at Paris; yet this was done by the English Government. It may perhaps be said that it signifies nothing to a man what is done to him after he is dead ; but it signifies much to the living; it either torture their feelings or hardens their hearts, and in either Case it instructs them how to punish when power falls into their hands.

Lay then the axe to the root, and teach Goverment humanity. It is their sanguinary punishment which corrupt mankind.............. The effect of those cruel spectacles exhibited to the populace is to destroy tenderness or excite revenge ; and by the base and false ideas of governing men by terror instead of reason, they become precedants.

[Rights of Man PP -32 T. Paine]

Page 15

Monarch and Monarchy ;-

It was not against Louis XVI ; but against despotic principles of goverment ,that the nation revolted.

The principles had not their origin in him, but in original establishment; many centuries back; and they were become too deeply rooted to be removed ; and the Augean stable of parasites and plunderers too abominably filthy to be cleared , by anything short of a complete revolution. When it becomes necessary to do a thing ,the whole heart and soul should go into the measure ,or not attempt it ................... The Monarch and Monarchy were distinct and separate things and it was against the person or principles of former, that the revolt commenced and the Revolution has been carried.

PP 19

: 0 :

Natural and Civil Rights :--

Man did not enter into the society to become worse than he was before, but to have those rights better secured. His natural right are the foundation of all his civil rights.

Natural rights are those which appertain ro man in right of his existance (intellectual - mental etc )

Civil rights are those that appertain to man in right of his being a member ofa society


: 0 :

Page 16

King Salary ;

It is inhuman to talk of a million sterling a year paid out of the public taxes of any country , for the support of one individual , whilst thousands who are forced to cntribute there to, are pining with want and struggling with misery. Government does not consist in contrast between prisons and palaces ,between poverty and pump; it is not instituted to rob the needy of his mite and increase the worthlessness of the wretched.

p 204

-------------------------: 0 : --------------------------

"Give me liberty or death"

" It is invain ,sir, to extenuate the matter , Gentleman , may cry peace, peace ___ but there is no peace. The war is actually begun.the next gate that sweeps from the North to our ears the clash of resounding arms.Our bretherns are already in the field. Why stand we here idle? What is that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery. Forbid it Almighty God! I know not what course other may take, as for me, give me liberty or death."

Patrick Henery

-----------------: 0 :--------------

Rights of Labour :--- "Who ever produces anything by weary labour , does not need a revelation from heaven to teach him that he have rights to the thing produced."

Robert G Ingersoll

Page 17

" We consider it horrible that people should have their heads cut off, but we have not been taught to see the hour of life- long death which is inflicted upon a whole population by poverty and tyranny." Mark Twain

: 0 :

Anarchists " .............. The Anarchist and the apostles of insurrection are also represented ; and if some of the things seem to the readers the mere unchaining of the furies , I would say ,let him not blame the faithful anthologist , let him not blame even the writer ....... Let him blame himself , who has acquiesced in the existing conditions which have driven his fellowmen to extreme of madness and despair"

Upton Sinclair --- Preface 19 Cry for Justice

: 0 :

The Old Labouror

" ............ He (the old labourer out of employment ) was struggling against age , against nature , against cirumstances ; the entire weight of society ,law and order pressed upon him to force him to love his self respect and liberty .......... He knocked at the door of the farms and found good in man only .............. not in law and order , but in individual man alone ." Richard Jefferies . 30


Page 18

Poor Labourers

"......... And we , the men who braved this task , were out cast of the world . A blind fate , a vast merciless mechanism , cut and shaped the fabric of our existance .We were men despised when we were most useful, rejected when we were not needed, and forgotten when our troubles weighed upon us heavily. We were the men sent out to fight the spirit of the wastes , rob it for all its primeval horrors, and batter down the barriers of its world - old defences. Where we were working a new town would spring up some day ; it was already springing up , and then ,if one of us walked there ‘ a man with no fixed address , " he would be taken up and tried as a loiterer and vagrant ."

From Children of the Dead End

By Patrick Macgill c.j 48

: 0 :

Morality :-

" Morality and religion are but words to him who fishes in gutters for the means of sustaining life , and crouches behind barrels in the street for shelter from the cutting blasts of winter night " Horace Greeley -128

: 0 :

Hunger " It is desirable for a ruler that no man should suffer from cold and hunger under his rule . Man cannot maintain his standarad of morals when he has no ordinary means of living." Kenko Hoshi Budhist monk of Japan 14th Century P 135

Page 19


Men! whose boast it is that ye

Come of fathers brave and free,

If there breathe on earth a slave,

Are you truely free and brave?

If ye do not feel the chain

When it works a brother’s pain

Are ye not base slaves indeed

Slaves unworthy to be freed?

Is true Freedom but to break

Fetters for our own dear sake,

And , with leathern hearts , forget

That we owe mankind a debt?

No! true Freedom is to share

All the chains our brothers wear ,

And, with heart and hand , to be

Earnest to make others free!

They are slaves who fear to speak

For the fallen and the weak;

They are slaves who will not choose

Hatered, scoffing and abuse,

Rather than in silence shrink

From the truth they needs must think:

They are slaves who dare not be

In the right with two or threee

James Russell Lowell (p.189)

Page 20

Full many a gem of purest ray serene,

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear;

Full many a flower is harm to blush unseen

And waste it sweetness on the desert air.

{ far from the Madding Crowd by Thomas Gray Eglish poet and scholar 1716 - 1771 ed. reference not in note book }

: 0 :

Invention : ----

Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened day’s toil of any human being.

J S Mill page 199

: 0 :

Alms : -

" There is no one on earth more disgusting and repulsive than who gives alms .Even as there is no one so miserable as he who accepts them."

Maxim Gorky P 204

Liberty ;- Those corpses of youngmen

Those martyrs that hang from the gibbets

Those hearts pierced by the grey lead,

Cold and motionless as they seem , line close

Where with unslaughtered vitality.

They live in other youngmen , O kings !

They live in books again ready to defy you!

They were purified by death -

they were taught and exalted!

Page 21 Not a grave of the murdered for freedom ,

but grows seed for freedom , in its turn to beer seed,

Which the wind carry afar and re-sow , and the

rains and the snows nourish .

Not a disembodied spirit can the weapons of tyrants let loose,

But it stalks invincibily over the earth , whispring, counselling cautioning.

P 268 "Walt Whitman"

: 0 :

Free Thought

" If there is any thing that cannot bear free thought let it crack."

Wendell Phillips 271

State :-----

" Away with the state ! I will take part in that revolution.Undermine the whole conception of a state ,declare free choice and spritual kinship to be only all important condition of any union ,and you will have the commencement of a liberty that is worth something. "

Hunrich Adbsen 273

Oppressor’s :--------

" Surely oppresive maketh a wise man mad." P 278

Page 22

Martyrs :-------

" The man who flings his whole life into attempt , at the cost of his own life, to protest against the wrongs of his fellowmen , is a saint compared to the active and passive upholders of cruelty and injustice , even if his protest destroy other lives beside his own.Let him who is without sin in society cast the first stone at such a one . " P 281

Lower Class :-----

While there is a lower class I am in it,

While there is a criminal element I am in it,

While there is a soul in jail I am not free.

Engene B Dabs 144

One against all :- [ Charles Fourier 1772-1837]

The present social order is a ridiculous mechanism ,in which portions of the whole are in conflict and acting against the whole. We see each class in society desires, from interest , the misfortune of the other class , placing in every way individual interest in opposition to public good. The lawyer wishes litigations and suits , particularily among the rich; the physician desires sickness .(The latter would be ruined if every body died without disease, as would the former if all quarrells were settled by arbitration.) The soldier wants war ,which will carry off half his comrades and secure him promotion; the undertaker wants burials;monoplists and forestallers want femine ,to double or treble the price of grain; the architect , the carpenter, the mason , want conflagration, that will burn down a hundred houses to give activity to their branches of business.

p 202

Page 23

New Gospel

" Society can overlook murder , adultry or swindling; it never forgives the preaching of a new gospel.

p327 Fredric Harrison

: 0 :

Tree of Liberty

The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.

Thomas Jefferson 332

: 0 :

Chicago Martyrs :------

Say them ,that the man erred grievously, if his eror had been ten times as great , it ought to have been wiped from human recollection by his sacrifice.......

Granted freely that their idea of best man of making a protest was utterly wrong and impossible , granted that they want not the best way to work . But what was it that drove them into attack against the social order as they found it? They and thousands of others that stood with them were not bad men nor depressed nor blood thirsty, nor hard hearted , nor criminals nor selfish , nor crazy. Then what was it that worked a complaint so bitter and deep seated...........

No one ever contemplated the simple fact that men do not bend themselves together to make a protest without the belief that they have something to protest about and that in any organised state of society a widespread protest is something far garve enquiry.

Charles Edward Russell 333

: 0:

Page 24 Will of a Revolutionary

" I also wish my friends to speak ittle or not at all about me , because idols are created when men are praised , and this is very bad for the future of the human race. Acts alone , no matter by whom committed , ought to be studied , praised or blamed.Let them be praised in order that they may be imitated when thy seem to contribute to the commonweal.Let them be censured when they are regarded as injurious to the general

well being, so that they may not be repeated.

I desire that on no occasion whether near or remote , nor for any reason what so ever , shall demonstration of a political or religious character be made before my remains, as I consider the time devoted to the dead would be better employed in improving the conditons of the living most of whom stands in great need of this."

{ Will of Francisco Ferrer , Spanish educator

1859-1909 Executed after the Bacelona riots

by a plot of his clerical enemies.}

: 0 :


" Come follow me ." Said Jesus Christ to the rich youngmen.

To stay in his own set and invest his fortune in works of charity ,would have been comparatively easy. Philanthropy has been fashionable in every age. Charity takes the insurrectionary edge off of the poverty. Therefore the philanthropic rich man is a benefactor to his fellow magnates and is made to feel their gratitude; to him all doors of fashion swing. {But jesus issued a veto.} He denied the legitimacy of alm-giving as a plaster for the deep lying sore in the social tissue. ...... Philanthropy as a substitute for justice - he would have none of it. Charity is twice cursed - it harden him that gives and soften him that takes. It does more harm to the poor than exploitaton , because it makes them willing to be exploited . It breads slavishness which is moral suicide. The only thing Jesus would permit a swollen fortune to do was to give itself to revolutionary propaganda in order that swollen fortune might be forever after impossible............

Bonck White Clergyman born 1874 p 353

Page 25

Fight for Freedom

The power of armies is visible thing

Formal and circumscribed in time and space

But who then limits that power shall trace

Which a brave people into light can bring

Or hide ,at will ,- for freedom combating

By just revenge inflamed? No foot may chase,

No eye can follow , to a fatal place

That power that spirit whether on the wing

Like strong wind , or sleeping like the wind

Within its awful caves ----- from year to year

Spring this indigenous produce far and near;

No craft this subtle element can bind,

Rising like water from the soil , to find .

In every nook a lip that it may cheer,

{ W. Wordsworth}

page 26



Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward,
All in the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
‘Forward, the Light Brigade!
Charge for the guns!’ he said:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.


‘Forward, the Light Brigade!’
Was there a man dismay’d?
Not tho’ the soldier knew
Some one had blunder’d:
Their’s not to make reply,
Their’s not to reason why,
Their’s but to do and die:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.


Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them
Volley’d and thunder’d;
Storm’d at with shot and shell,
Boldly they rode and well,
Into the jaws of Death,
Into the mouth of Hell

Rode the six hundred.


Flash’d all their sabres bare,
Flash’d as they turn’d in air
Sabring the gunners there,
Charging an army, while
All the world wonder’d:


Plunged in the battery-smoke
Right thro’ the line they broke;
Cossack and Russian
Reel’d from the sabre-stroke
Shatter’d and sunder’d.
Then they rode back, but not
Not the six hundred.


Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon behind them
Volley’d and thunder’d;
Storm’d at with shot and shell,
While horse and hero fell,
They that had fought so well
Came thro’ the jaws of Death,
Back from the mouth of Hell,
All that was left of them,
Left of six hundred.


When can their glory fade?
O the wild charge they made!
All the world wonder’d.
Honour the charge they made!
Honour the Light Brigade,
Noble six hundred!


Dil De To Iss Mizaaj kai Parwardigar De

Jo Gam kee Ghari Ko Bhee Khushi se Gujar De


Sajaa Kar Mayyiat-e-umeed naakami kePhoolon Se

Kisi Hamdarad ne Rakh di mere toote hue Dil main


Chherh naa ai Farishte ! tu zikre ghame -Jaanaanaan

Kyon yaad dilaate ho Bhulaa Huaa Afsaanaa

page 28

Birth right

We’re the sons of that baffled

crowned and mirtes tyranny,

They defied the field and scoffold,

For their birth - rights - so will we !

[ J Campbell ]

: 0 :

Glory of the Cause

Ah! not for idle hatred , not

For honour , fame , nor self’applause,

But for the glory of the cause,

You did, what will not be forgot.

[ Arthur Chough ]

: 0 :

Immorality of soul : -

For you know if you can once get a man beleiving in immorality there is nothing more left for you to desire ; you can take everything in the world he owns - you can skin him alive if you please - and he will bear it with perfect good humour.

[ Upton Sinclair 403 c j ]

: 0 :

God Tyrants

A tyrant must put on the appearence of uncommon devotion to religion.Subjects are less apprehensive of illegal treatment from a ruler whom they consider God - fearing and pious. On the other hand , they do less easily move against him , beleiving that he has the gods on his side.

[ ................. ]

page 29

Soldiers & Thought

If my soldiers were to begin to reflect ; not one of them would be in the ranks.

[ Fredrick the Great ] 502 { 366 new ed}

: 0 :

The Noblest Fallen

The Noblest have fallen , they were buried

Obscurely in a deserted place.

No tears fell over them

Strange hands carried them to the grave

No cross , no enclouser , and no tomb stone tell

Their glorious names.

Grass grows over them , a feeble blade

bending low keeps the secret,

The sole witness were the surging waves ,

which furiously beat against the shore

But even they the mighty waves could

Not carry farewell greetings to

The distant home.

[ V N Figner]

: 0 :


There were no stars , no earth , no time ,

No check , no change , no good , no crime,

But silence , and a stirless breath,

Which neithr was of life nor death.

[ The Prisoner of Chillon}

Page 30

After Conviction

During the moments which immediatly follow upon his sentence , the mind of the condemned in many respects resembles that of aman on the point of death. Quiet and as if inspired he no longer clings to what he is about to leave , but firmly looks in front of him, fully conscious of the fact that what is coming is inevitable.

[ V N Figner ]

: 0 :

The Prisoner

It is a suffocating under the low dirty roof;

My strength grows weaker year by year :

They oppress me , this stormy floor,

This iron chained table ,

This bed of steel , this chair , chained

To the walls , like boards of grave .

In this eternal dumb , deep silence

One can only consider oneself a corpse.

" N . A . Morozov"

: 0 :

Naked walls , prison thoughts ,

How dark and sad you are!

How heavy to tie a prisoner in active,

And dream of years of feedom

" Morozov"

: 0 :

urdu " Tujeh jibah karne kee khushi mujhe marne ka shok

Meri Bhee marji wohi hai jo mere siad kee hai

Page 31

Everything here is so silent , lifeless , pale

The years pass fruitless leaving no trace;

The weeks and days drag on heavily,

Bringing only dull bored in their suite.


: 0 :

Our thoughts , grow dull from long confinement;

there is a feeling of heaviness in our bone;

The minutes seem eternal from torturing pain,

In this cell , from steps wide.

: 0 :

Entirly for our fellow we must live,

Our entire selves for them we must give,

And for their sakes struggle against ill fate.


Came to set me Free ;--

At least men came to set me free;

I asked not why and recked not where,

It was at length the same to me ,

Fettered a fetterless to be,

I learned to love dispair.

And thus when they appeared at last,

And all my bonds aside were cast,

These heavy walls to me had grown

A hermitage ---- and all my own.

[The Prisoners of Chillon]

{Ed. by Lord Byron }

Page 32

‘And from on high we have been honoured with a mission !

We passed a severe school , but acquired higher knowledge

Thanks to exile , prison , and a bitter lot,

We know and value the world of truth and freedom!

[ Prisoners of schulesselburg ]

: 0 :

Death and Suffering of a child ;-

A child was born , he committed consciously neither bad nor good actions. He fell ill he suffered much and long , untill he died in terrible agony . Why? Wherefore ? It is eternal riddle for the philosphers.’

: 0 :

Frame of mind of a Revolutionary : ----

He who has ever been under the influence of the life of Jesus , who was borne in the name of an ideal , humiliation , suffering and death; he who has once considered Him as an ideal and his life as the prototype of a disinterested love - will understand the frame of mind of the revolutonary who has been sentenced and thrown into a

tomb for his work on behalf of popular freedom."

[ Vera N Figner ]

: 0 :

Rights : ---

Don’t ask for rights , take them. And don’t let any one give them to you .A right that handed to you for nothing has something the matter with it. It’s more than likely it is only a wrong turned in side out.

Page 33

No Enemies?

You have no enemies you say ?

Alas! my friend the boast is poor;

He who has mingled in the fray

of duty , that the brave endure,

Must have made foes! If you have none,

small is the work you have done.

You ‘ve hit no traitor on the hip,

You ‘ve dashed no cup from perjured lip,

You ‘ve never turned the wrong to right,

You ‘ve been a coward in the fight.

[ Charles Mackey 747 ] {ed. now cry for justice 493(1996)}

: 0 :

Child Labour

No fledgling feeds the father bird !

No chiken feeds the hen,

No kitten mouses for the cat -

This glory is for men.

We are the Wisest , Strongest Race -

Loud may our praise be sung !

The only animal alive

That lives upon its young !

[ Charlotte Perkins Gilman ] { now C F J p442}


Page 34

No Classes ! No Compromise !!

( George D. Herron)

Under the Socialist movement there is coming a time and the time may be even now at hand , when improved conditions or adjusted wages will no longer be thought to be an answer to cry for labour; yes when these will be but an insult of the common intelligence. It is not for better wages, improved capialist conditions or a share of capitalist profits that the Socialist movement is in the world; it is here for the abolition or wages and profits and for the end of capitalism and private capital. Reformed political institutions boards of arbitration between capital and labour ,philanthropies and privilages that are but the capitalist’s gifts- none of these can much longer answer the question that is making the temples ,thrones and Parliments of the nation tremble. There can be no peace between the man who is down and the man who builds on his back. There can be no reconcilliation between classes; there can only be end of classes. It is idle to talk of goodwill untill there is first justice, and idle to talk of justice untill the man who makes the world possesses the work of his own hands. The cry of the world’s workers can be answered with nothing save the whole product of their work.

(George D. Herron)

Page 35

Wastes of Capitalism

Economic estimates about Austrelia by Theodore Hertzka (1886)

Every family = 5-roomed 40 ft sq House to last for 50 years

Workers’ workable age : 16 to 50

So we hve 5,000,000.

Labour of 615,000 workers is sufficient to produce food for 22,000,000 people = 12.3% of labour

Including labour cost of transport ,luxuries need only 315,000 = 6.33% workers’ labour

That amounts to this that 20% of the available labour is enough for supporting the whole of continent. The rest 80% is exploited and wasted de to capitalist order of society.

Page 36

Czarist Regime & the Bolshevish Regime

Fraigier Hunt tells that in the first fourteen months of their rule ,the Bolshiviks executed 4500 men , mostly for stealing and speculation.

After the 1905 Revolution , Stolypin , minister of Czar caused the excecution of 32773 men

within twelve months.

[ p390]

[ Brass Check]

Page 37

Permanency of the Social Institutions

It is one of the illusions of each generation that the social institutions in which it lives are, in some peculiar ‘sense’, "natural " , unchangeable and permanent. Yet for countless thousands of years, social institutions have been successively arising , developing, decaying and becoming gradually superseded by others better adopted to contemporary needs.......

.... The question ,then , is not whether our present civilization will be transformed ,but how it will be trasformed?

It may be considerate adaption , be made to pass gradually and peacefully into a new form . Or , if there is angry resistance instead of adaption ,it my crash , leaving mankind painfully to build up a new civilization from the lower level of stage of social chaos and disorder in which not only the abuses but also the material, intellectual and moral gains of the previous order will have been lost.

P1 Decay of Cap. Civilization


Page 38

Capitalism and Commercialism :----

Rabinder Nath’s adress to an assembly of Japanese students :---

" You had your own industry in Japan ; how scrupulously honest and true it was, you can see by its products - by their grace and strength , their conscientiousness in details where they can hardly be observed . But the tidal wave of falsehood has swept over your land from that part of the world where business is business and honesty is followed merely as the best policy. Have you never felt shame when you see the trade advertisements , not only plastering the whole town with lies and exaggerations, but invading the green fields , where the peasents do their honest labour, and to hilltops which greet the first light of the morning?..... This commercialism with its barbarity of ugly decorations is a terrible menance to all humanity , because it is setting up the ideal of power over perfection . It is making the cult of self seekig exult in its naked shamelessness.................

page 39 ... Its movements are violent , its noise is discardently loud. It is carrying its own damnation because it is trampling into distortion. The humanity upon which it stands .It is strenously turning out the money at the cost of happiness......... The vital ambition of the present civilization of Europe is to have the exclusive possesion of devil.


Capitalist Society :

"The foremost truth of political economy is that everyone desires to obtain individual wealth with as little sacrifice as possible."

" Nassan Senior"

Page 40

Karl Marx on Religion :------

Man makes religion ; religion does not make man. Religion , indeed, is the self consciousness and the self feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or else ( have found himself) has lost himself once more. But men is not an abstract being squatting down somewhere outside the world . Man is the world of men , the state , society. This state ,this society produces religion, produces a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the generalised theory of this world its encylopaedic compend , its logic in a popular form ........... The fight against religion is, therefore a direct compaign against the world whose spiritual aroma is religion


Page 41

continued from last page:------

Religion is the sigh of oppressed creature the feelings of a heartless world just as it is the spirit of inspiritual conditions. " It is the opium of the people"

The people cannot be really happy untill it has been deprived of illusory happines by the abolition of religion. The demand that the people should shake itself free of illusion as to its own condition is the demand that it should abondon a condition which needs illusion

The weapon of criticism cannot replace the critiism of weapons. Physical force must be overthrown by physical force as soon as it takes possesion of the masses.

Page 42

A Revolution not Utopian

A radical revolution , the general amancipation of mankind , is not a utopian dream for Germany ; what is utopian is the idea of a partial, an exclusively political revolution , which would leave the pillar’s of the house standing.


" Great are great because

we are on knees

Let us Rise. "

Page 46

Democracy : ----

Democracy is theoratically a system of political and legal equality . But in concrete and practical operation it is false, for there can be no equality , not even in politics and before the law , so long as there is glaring in equality in economic power. So long as the ruling class owns the worker’s jobs and the press and the schools of country and all organs for the moulding and expression of public opinion; so long as it monopolise all trained public functionaries and disposes of unlimited funds to influence elections , so long as the laws are made by ruling class and the courts are presided over by members of that class, so long as lawyers are private practitioners who sell their skill to the heighest bidder and litigation is technical and costly , so long will the nominal equality before the law be a hollow mackery.

In a capitalist regime the whole machinary of democracy operates to keep the ruling class monority in power thrugh the sufferage of working class majority, and when the bourgeois goverment feels itself endangered by democratic institutions, such institutions re often crushed without compunction.

[ p 58]

[ From Marx to Lenin ]

[ by Morris Hillquit ]

Democracy does not secure " equal rights and a share in all political rights for every body , to what ever class or party he may belong " (Kautsky) It only allows free political and legel play .For the existing economic inequalities ............. Democracy under capitalism is thus not general, abstract democracy but specific bourgeois democracy .......... or as Lenin terms it ------------- democracy for bourgeois .

( ......... not readable ed. )

Page 47

" Term "Revolution" defined " :----

" The conception of revolution is not to be treated in the police interpretation of term , in the sense of an armed rising. A party would be mad that would choose the method of insurrection on principle so long as it has at its disposal different , less costly , and safer methods of action. In that sense , social democracy was never revolutioanry on principle . It is only in the sense that it recognises that when it attains political power, it cannot employ it for any other than the abolition of the mode of production upon which thw present system rests. "

" Karl Kautsky"

: 0 :

Some facts and figures about United States

5 men can produce bread for 1000

1 man acn produce cotton cloth for 250

1 man can produce woollen for 300

1 man can produce boots and shoes for 1000

p78 Iron Heel

: 0 :

15,000,000 are living in abject poverty who cannot even maintain their working efficiency. 3,000,000 child labourer

: 0 :

Re: England :---

Pre war estimates

Total production of England ( per annum) 2000,000,000

Gains through foreign investments 200,000,000

1/9 th part of population took away 1/2 1100,000,000

2/9 th ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ 1/3 of rest 1100,000,000

i.e 300,000,000

..................... (ed. rest not readable )

Page 48


Arise, ye prisoners of starvation !

Arise ye wretched on earth ,

To justice thunders condemnation,

A better world’s in birth.

No more traditions chain shall bind us,

Arise ye slaves ! no more in thrall !

The earth shall rise on new foundation ,

we have been naught we be all


it is like final conflict ,

Let earth stand on his place,

The international party ,

Shall be the human race.


Behold them seated in their glory,

The kings of mine and rail and soil,

When would you read in all their story,

But how they plundered toil?

Fruits of people’s work are buried,

In the strong coffers of a few,

In voting for their restitution,

The men will ask only for their due,

[ same Refrain ]

Toilers from shops and fields united ,

The party we of all who work,

The earth belongs to us, the people,

No room here for the shirk,

How many on our flesh have fattened?

But if the noise some birds of pray ,

Shall vanish from our sky some morning ,

The blessed sunlight still will stay,

[ same Refrain again]

Page 49


Ye sons of toil ,awake to glory !

Hark , hark , what myraids bid you rise,

Your children, wives and grand sires hoary,

Behold their tears and hear their cries,

Shall hateful tyrants mischief breeding,

With hireling hosts , aruffian band --,

Affright and desolute the land

While peace and liberty lie bleeding ?

[ chorus]

To arms , To arms ! Ye brave!

The avenging sword unsheathe

March on , march on , all hearts resolved,

On Victory or death.


With luxury and pride unsounded,

The vile insatiate despots dare,

Their thirst for gold and power unbounded

To meet and vend the light and air;

Like beasts of burden would they load us,

Like gods would bid their slaves adore,

But man is man and who is more ?

Then shall they longer last and goad us ?

[ The same chorus again ]

Oh liberty ! Can man resign thee,

Once having felt thy generous flame ?

Can dungeons bolts and bars confine thee ,

Or whips thy noble spirit tame ?

Too long the world has wept bewailing ,

The falsehood daggers tyrants wield;

But freedom is our sword and shield,

And all their arts are unavailing ?

[Same Chorus again ]

Page 50

Growth of Opportunism : ----

It was the possibility of acting within the law that reared opportunism within labour parties of the period of Second International .

[ Lenin vide Collapse of II Int. N ]

Illegal Work

" In a country where the bourgeosie , or the counter - revolutionary Social Democracy is in power , te Communist Party must learn to coordinate its legal work with illegal work and legal work must always be under the effective control of illegal party."


: 0 :

Betrayal of II Int. N’s Cause

The vast organisation of socialism and labour were adjusted to such peace time activities , and when the crisis came , a number of the leaders and large portion of masses were unable to adopt themselves to the new situation ...... It is inevitable development that accounts largely for the betrayal of II International.

Marx to Lenin p 140

Morris Hillquiet

: 0 :

The Cynic’s Word Book (1906)

Ambrose Prierce writes :---

" Grape shot --- (n) -- An argument which the future is preparing in answer to the demands of American Socialism. "


Rifles !

" You say you will have majority in the Parliament and State offices , but " How many rifles have you got ? Do you know where you can get plenty of lead ? When it comes to powder , the chemical mixtures are better than mechanical mixtures. You take my word."

p198 Iron Heel

Page 53

Power and its Achievement

A socialist leader had addressed a meeting of the plutocrats and charged them of mismanging the society and there by thrown the whole resposibilit for the woes and misery that confronts the suffering humanity.After wards a capitalist ( Mr. Wickson)rose and addressed him as follows :

" This, then, is our answer . We have no words to waste on you. When you reach out your vaunted strong hands for our palaces and purpled ease , we will show you what strength is. In roar os shell and shrapnel and in whine of machine guns will our answer be couched. We will grind you revolutioists down under our heel, and we shall walk upon your faces. The world is ours. We are its lords and ours it shall remain. as for the host of labour. It has always been in the dirt since history began , and I read history aright. And in the dirt it shall remain so long as I and mine , and those that come after us , have the power.

There is the word. It is the king of words ---- Power. Not God , not mammon but power. Pour it over your tongue till it tingles with it. "Power"

" I am answered." Earnest (the socialist leader) said quietly. " Itis the only answer that could be given. Power. It is what we of the working class preach. We know and well we know by bitter experience that no appel for the right, for justice, for humanity can ever touch you. Your hearts are hard as your heels with which you tread upon the faces of the poor. So we have preached power. By the Power of our ballots , on election day will we take your government away from you ........ "

" What if you do get a majority, a sweeping majority on election day." Mr. Wickson broke in to demand . "Suppose we refuse to turn the Government over to you after you have captured it at the ballot box?"

Page 54

" That also we have considered, " Earnest replied. "And we shall give you an answer in terms of lead. Power, you have proclaimed the king of words. Very good! Power, it shall be. And in the day that we sweep to victory at the ballot box, and you refuse to turn over to us the government we have constitutionally and peacefully captured and you demand what we are going to do about it -- ? --- in that day. I say , we shall answer you ; and in roar of shell and shrapnel, in whine of machine guns shall our answer be couched .

" You can not escape us. It is true that you have read history aright. It is true that labour has , from the begining of history been in the dirt . And it is equally true that so long as you and yours and those that come after you , have power, that labour shall remain in dirt. I agree with

you. I agree with all you have said. Power will be the arbiter, as it always have been the arbiter. It is a struggle of classes. Just as your class dragged down the old feudal nobility , so shall be draged down by my class, the working class. If you will read your biology and your sociology as clearly as do your history, you will see that this end I have described is inevitable. It does not matter whether it is in one year , ten or a thousand -- your class will be draged down .And it shall be done by power. We of the labour host have coined that word over , till our minds are all atingle with it. Power. It is kingly word.

Iron Heel P 88

by Jack London

Page 55

Figures : ----

England :---

1922 -- Number of men employment - 1,135,000

1926 -- It has oscillated to 11/4 and 11/2 millions

i.e 1,250,000 to 1,500,000

Betrayal of the English Labour Leaders

The years 1911 to 1913 were times of unparalled class struggles of the miners, railwaymen, and transport workers generally. In August 1911, a national , in other words a general strike broke out on the railways . The vague shadow of revolution hovered over Britain in those days. The leaders exerted all their strength in order to paralys the movement. Their motive was "Patriotism"; the affair was occuring at the time of the Agadir incident which thretened to lead to war with Germany. As is well known today, the Premier summoned the workers’ leaders to a secret council , and called them to salvation of he fatherland. And leaders did all that lay in their power , strengthening the bourgeoisie and thus preparing the way for the imperialist slaughter.


Where is Britain going?


Page 56

Betrayal :--

Only after 1920 ,did the movement returns within bounds , after "Black Friday" when Triple alliance of miner’s ,railwatmen’s and transport leaders betrayed the general strike.


: 0 :

For Reform a Threat of Revolution is necessary : ----

" The British bourgeoisie reckoned that by such means (reform) a revolution could be avoided. It follows, therefore, that even for the introduction of reforms , the principle of gradualness alone is insufficient, and that an actual threat of revolution is necessary.


: 0 :

Social Solidarity :

It would seem that once we stand for the annihilation of a privileged class which has no desire to pass from the scene, we have there in the the basic contents of class struggle. But no, Macdonald desires to "evoke" the consciousness of social solidarity . With whom? The solidarity of working class is the expression of its internal welding in the struggle with the bourgeoisie.

The social solidarity which Macdonald preaches is the solidarity of the exploited with the exploiters in other words, the maintenance of exploitation.

Revolution a Calamity :-----

" The revolution in Russia ", says Macdonald, " taught us a great lesson. It showed that revolutions is a ruin and a calamity and nothing more."

Page 57

Revolution leads only to calamity ! But the British Democracy led to the imperialist war, ............ With the ruin of which the calamities of revolution cannot ,of course , be compared in the very least. But in addition to this , wht deaf ears and shameless face are necessary in order ,in the face of a revolution which overthrew Tzarism, nobility and bougeoisie, shook the church , awakened to a new life a nation of 130 million, a whole family of nations , to decare that revolution is a calamity and nothing more.

p 64

: 0 :

Peaceful ? : ----

When and where did the ruling class ever yield power and property on the order of a peaceful vote -- and especially such a class as the British bourgeoisie which has behind it centuries of world rapacity ?

p 66

: 0 :

Aim of socialism :--- Peace

It is absolutely unchallenged that the aim of socialism is to eliminate force, first of all in its most crude and bloody forms , and afterwards in other more concealed forms.


Where is Britain Going ?


Aim of the World Revolution :-----

1. To ver through capitalism

2. To control the nature for the service of humanity.

This is how Bukharin defined it.

Page 58

Man and machinary

The United States Bureau of Labour tells:

12 lbs package of pins can be made by a man working with a machine in 1 hr 34 minutes.

The same would take 140 hours and 55 minutes , if man works with tools only, but without machine.

Ratio 1.34 : 140.55 times

: 0 :

100 pairs of shoes by machine work takes 234 hr 25 minutes

By hand it will take 1,831 hrs 40 minutes

Labour cost on machine is $ 69.55

"" "" by hand is $ 457.92

: 0 :

500 yards of gingham checks ae made by machine labour in 73 hours

By hand labour , it takes 5,844 hours

: 0 :

100 lbs of sewing cotton can be made by machine labour in 39 hours

By hand it takes 2,895 hours


Re: Agriculture

A good man with scythe can reap 1 acre a day ( 12 hours)

A machine does the same work in 20 minutes.

Six men with flials can thresh 60 liters of wheat in half an hour

One machine thresher can do 12 times as much .

" The increased effectiveness of man - labour aided by the use of machinery ....... varies from 150 % in the case of rye to 2,244 % in the case of Barley.......... "

Page 59

The wealth of U.S.A and its Population : 1850 - 1912

per capita T. Population

In 1850 total wealth was $ 7,135,780,000 $ 308 = 23,191,876

1860 Total wealth was $ 16,159,616,000 $ 514 = 31,443,321

1870 " $ 30,068,518,000 $ 780 = 38,558,371

1880 " $ 43,642,000,000 $ 870 = 50,155,783

1890 $ 65,037,091,000 $ 1,036 = 62,947,714

1900 $ 88,517,307,000 $ 1,165 = 75,994,575

1904 $ 107,104,202,000 $ 1,318 = 82,416,551

1912 $ 187,139,071,000 $ 1,965 = 95,410,503

Due to the use of machinary

: 0 :

The machine is social in nature as the tool was individual

: 0 :

" Give us worst cotton , but give us better men."

Says Emerson

" Deliver me , those rickety perishing souls of infants , and let the cotton trade take its chance."

P 81

: 0 :

The man cannot be sacrificed to machine .The machine must serve mankind. Yet the danger to the human race lurks , menancing in the Industrial Regime.

Poverty and Riches P 81

Scott Nearing

Page 60

Man and Machinary :

C. Hanford Henderson in his " Pay Day" writes :

" This institution of industry the most primitive of all institution , organised and developed in order to free mankind from tyranny of Things , has become it self the greater tyrant degrading a multitude into the conditions of slaves - slaves doomed to produce , through long and weary hours , a senseless glut of things and then forced to suffer for the lack of the very things they have produced. "

Pov. Riches P 87

: 0 :

Man is not Machinary :---

The combination of steel and fire ,which man has produced and called a machine , which man has produced and called machine , must be ever the servant, never the master of man. Neither the machine nor the machine owner may rule the human race.

P 88

: 0 :

Imperialism : ---

Imperiaism is capitalism in that stage of developent in which monopolies and financial capital have attained a preponderating influence, the export of capital has acquired great importance the international trusts have begun the partition of world , and the biggest capitalist countries have completed the division of the entire terrestrial globe among themselves. "


Page 61

Dictatorship : ----

Dictatorship is an authority relying directly upon force , and not bound by any laws.

The revolutionary dictatorship of the proltariat is an authority managed by the proletariate by means of force over and against the bourgeoisie , and not bound by any laws.

Prol. Rev p18 Lenin

: 0 :

Revolutionary Dictatorship :---

Revolution is an act in which one section of the population imposes its will upon the other by rifles, bayonets , guns and other such exceedingly authoritarian means. And the party which has won is necessarily compelled to maintain its rule by means of that fear which in arms inspire in the reactionaries. If the Commune of Paris had not relied upon the armed people as against bourgeoisie , would it have maintained it self more than twenty- four hours? Are we not, in contrary, justified in reproaching the commune for having employed this authority too little ?"


: 0 :

Bourgeoisie Democracy : ---

Bourgeoisie Democracy while constituting a great historical advance in comparison with feudalism nevertheless remains and cannot but remain , a very limited , a very hypocritical institution , a paradise for the rich and a trap and a delusion for the exploited and for the poor.

Lenin P 28

Page 62

Exploitation of labour and state :---

Not only the ancient and feudal, but also the representative state of today is an instrument of exploitation of wage labour by capital."


: 0 :

Dictatorship : ------

"Since the state is only a temporary institution which is to be made use in revolution in order forcibly to suppress the opponents. It is perfectly absurd to talk about a free popular state ; so long as the proletariat still needs it not in the interest of freedom ; but in order to suppress its opponents , and when it becomes possible to speak of freedom the state , as such ,ceases to exist. "

Engels in his letter to Babels March 28th 1875

: 0 :

The impatient Idealist :-----

The impatient idealist --- and without some impatience a man hardly prove effective --- is almost sure to be led into hatered by the opposition, and disappointments which he encounters in his endeavaour to bring happiness to the world.

Bertrand Russell

: 0 :

Page 63

Leader :--

" No time need have gone to ruin" writes Carlyle , " Could it have found a man great enough , a man wise and good enough ; wisdom to dicern truely what the time wanted valour to lead it on the right road thither; these are the salvation of any time."

: 0 :

Arbitrariness :--

Kautsky had written a booklet with the title "Proletariate Dictatorship" and had deplored the act of Bolsheviks in depriving the burgeoisie people from right to vote. Lenin writes in his "Proletarian Revolution " : -- P 77

Arbitariness ! Only tink what a depth of meanest subserviency to bourgeoisie and of the most idiotic pedantry is contained in such a reproach , when thoroughly bourgeios and for the most part even reactionaries jurists of capitalist countries have in the course of , we may almost say , centuries , been drawing up rules and regulations and writing up hundreds of volumes of various codes and laws , and of interpretations of them to oppress the workers , to bind hand and foot (of) the poor men , and to place a hundred and one hindrances and ob

stacles in the way of the simple and toiling masses of people --- when this is done , the bourgeois Liberals and Mr. Kautsky can see no "arbitrariness"! It is all Law and Order ! It has all been thought out and written down, how the poor man is to be kept dwn and squeezed. There are thousands and thousands of bourgeois lawyers and officials able to interpret the laws that the workers and average peasent can never break through their barbed wire entanglements. This of course ,is not a dictatorship of the filthy or profit-seeking exploiters who are drinking the blood of te people. Oh it is nothing of the kind! It is ‘pure democracy’ which is becoming purer Page 64 and purer everyday. But when the toiling and exploited masses for the first time in history seprated by Imperialist War from their brothers across the frontier, have constructed their Soviets, have summoned to the workers of political constrution , the classes which the bourgeois used to oppress and to stupefy, and begun themselves to build up a new proletarian State, begun in the midest of raging battles ,in the fire of Civil War, to lay down the fundamental principles of "a State without exploiters" , then all the scoundrals of the bourgeoisie , the entire band of blood suckers, with Kautsky, singing ‘obliger to’ scream about arbitariness!"

Lenin p77-78

: 0 :

Party :--

But it has become clear that no revolution is possible unless there is a party able to lead the revolution.

( p 15 Lessons of October 1917 )

A party is the instrument indespensible to a proletarian revolution.

( p17 Idib by Trotesky )

Signatures of B K Dutt

Dated 12/7/30

Law, morality. religion are to him ( the woring man ) so many bourgeois prejudices behind which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests.

Karl Marx -- Menifesto

Page 67

Autograph of Sh B K Dutta

12th July ‘30








Autograph of Mr. B K Dutta taken on 12th July ‘30 in Cell No 137 Central jail Lahore four days before his final departure from this jail .

Sd/- Bhagat Singh


Page 68


Page 69

Aim of communists : ---

" The communists disdain to conceal their views and aim. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to loose but their chains. They have a world to win Workingmen of all countries , unite.

: 0 :

Aim of Communist Revolution :---

" We have seen above , that the first step in the revolution by working class is to raise the proletriat to the position of ruling class, to win the battle of democracy to wrest , by degree , all capital from the bourgeoisie , to centralise all instruments of production in the hands of the State , i.e of the proletraiat organised as the ruling class, and to increase the total of productive forces as rapidly as possible. "

" Communist Manifesto "

Page 70

To point out the mistakes of Karl Marx :-----

..... And it certainly looks as if Trotsky belonged to what Germans called the school of "real politics " and was as innocent as Bismarck of any ideology at all. And it is therefore rather curious to note that even Trotsky is not revolutionary enough to say that Marx had made mistake; but feels obliged to devote a page or so to the task of exegesis -- that is , proving that the sacred books meant something quite different from what they said.

Preface to The lessons of October 1917

by Trotsky

Preface by A.Susan Lawrence

Voice of the People :-----

The Goverment we know have all ruled , in the main, by indifference of people; they have always been gov’t of a minority of this or that fraction of the country which is politically conscious. But when the gaint wakes , he will have his way , and all that matters to the world is whether he will wake in time.


Page 71

" It so often happens." wrote Lenin in July 1917, " that when events take a sudden turn, even an advanced party cannot adapt itself for some time to the new coditions. It goes on repeating yesterday’s watch words which under the new circumstances have become empty of meaning and which have lost meaning ‘unexpectedly’ , just in proportion as the change of in events has been unexpected. "

Lesson of October P17

: 0 :

Tactics and Strategy : -------

In politics as in war , tactics means the art of conducting isolated operations ; strategy means the art of victory , that is the actual seizure of power.

P 18

: 0 :

Propoganda and Action :----

And it is an extremely sudden change, when the party of Proletriat passes from prepration , from propaganda and organisation and agitation to an actual struggle for power and an actual insurrection against bougeoisie . Those in the party who are irresolute or sceptical , or compromising, or cowardly ..... oppose the insurrection, they look for theortical arguments to justify their opposition, and they find them all ready made , among their opponents of yesterday.

Trotsky p 19

Page 72

" It is necessary to direct ourselves, not by old formulas but by new realities."

Lenin p25

He always fought for the future against the past.



But a moment comes when the habit of thinking that the enemy is strongest becomes main obstacle to victotry.

Trotsky p 48

...... But in such circumstances not every party will have its Lenin.

....... What does it means to loose the moment?

All the art of tactics consists in this to to match the moment when the combination of circumstances is most favourable......

( Circumstances had produced the combination and Lenin said ) The crisis must be settled in one way or another " Now or never" repeated Lenin.

P 52

Page 73

The strength of a revolutionary party grows to a certain point, after which the contrary may happen .........

" To hesitate is crime" wrote at the begining of October, " To wait for the Congress of Soviets is a childish playing with formalities, a disgraceful playing with formalities, it is betraying the revolution."

.......................................... : 0 : ...........................

Opportune Moment : -----

Time is an important factor in politics. It is thousand times more so in war and revolution. Things can be done today that cannot be done tomorrow. To raise in arms to defeat the enemy , to seize power, may be possible today and tomorrow may be impossible. But, you will say , to seize power means changing the course of history; is it possible that such a thing can depend on a delay of 24 hours? Even so, when it comes to an armed insurrection, events are not measured by long yards of politics but by short yards of war. To lose a few weeks , a few days , sometimes even one day , may mean giving up the revolution , may mean capitulation.

Political cunning is always dangerous , especially in a revolution . You may deceive the enemy, but you may confuse the masses who are following you.

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Hesitation :----

Hesitation on the part of the leaders, and felt by their followers , is generally harmful in politics; but in the case of an armed insurrection, it is a deadly danger.

War :----

......... War is war ; come what may, there must be no hesitation or loss of time.

...................................... :0 : ......................

The inefficient Leader : ---

........ There are two kinds of leaders who incline to drag the party back at the moment when it should go fastest. One kind also tends to see over whelming difficulties and obstacles in the way of revolution and looks at them ----- consciously or unconsciously -- with the desire of avoiding them. They alter Marxism into a system for explaining why revolutionary action is impossible.

The other kind are mere superficial agitators. They see never any obstacle untill they can break their heads against them. They think they can avoid real difficulties by floods of oratory. They look at every thing with supreme optimism , and , naturally change right over when something has actually to be done.

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